Chinese Association of Idaho State University (CAISU)
Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) (77472-70-9)
Phenylpiracetam powder(also known as Phenotropil and carphedon powder) is a nootropic compound derivative of the parent compound in the Racetam family, Piracetam. It was first created in 1983 by a team of Russian scientists, and has recently become more well-known outside of Russia. Phenylpiracetam powder differs from Piracetam in the addition of a bulk phenyl grouping off the 4 position on the 2-pyrrolidone base structure. A phenyl grouping is a six-sided cyclic ring consisting of benzene, minus a hydrogen, leaving an open carbon bond available. Phenylpiracetam powderhas very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble.
In the brain, phenylpiracetam has several mechanisms of action, most of which involve stimulating the production of various neurotransmitters.
It acts as an ampakine, increasing levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by stimulating AMPA receptors. This action is associated with improved cognitive function and may play a significant role in phenylpiracetam’s ability to enhance memory, focus, and overall cognition.
Animal studies showed that phenylpiracetam powder also increases extracellular dopamine levels, both by activating the dopaminergic system and by acting as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that is associated with reward, motivation, memory, attention and the regulation of emotions and body movements. Increased dopamine levels are believed to be responsible, at least in part, for phenylpiracetam’s positive effects on motivation, mood, and focus.
Dopamine is also a direct precursor of the stimulatory neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and the levels of fat and sugar in the blood. These effects are thought to be related to phenylpiracetam’s energy and stamina boosting capability.
Like other racetam-type nootropics, phenylpiracetam also increases production of acetylcholine, sometimes referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter” because it is so closely associated with all aspects of cognition. The brain uses choline to produce acetylcholine and may quickly deplete its stores when taking racetams, which is why supplemental choline is generally suggested to be taken with phenylpiracetam.